Grand Challenges

Grand Challenges for Engineering

Author: 
Christina Foster
Grade Level: 
6
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
In the middle school years, students’ work with scientific investigations can be complimented by activities that are meant to meet a human need, solve a human problem, or develop a product. The understanding of technology can be developed by tasks which students have to design something and also by studying technological products and systems.
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
• Strand 1, Concepts 1 - 4 • Strand 2, Concept 1 - 2 • Strand 3, Concepts 1 -2 • Strand 4, Concept 3 • Strand 5, Concept 2 - 3
overview: 
Introduce Students to 5 grand challenges

Students will be exposed to 5 of the 14 grand challenges as a way to introduce them to the topics that relate to them in their science curriculum. Further, these lessons will be used to set the tone for a Grand Challenges Engineering and Science fair.

Mapping Species Distributions

Author: 
Elizabeth Ridder
Grade Level: 
7-9
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Grade  8     Strand  1:  Inquiry  Process   Concept  1:  Observations,  Questions,  and  Hypotheses:  Formulate  predictions,  questions,  or   hypotheses  based  on  observations.    Locate  appropriate  resources.  Concept  3:  Analysis  and  Conclusions:  Analyze  and  interpret  data  to  explain  correlations  and  results;   formulate  new  questions.     Concept  4:    Communication:  Communicate  results  of  investigations.     Strand  2:  History  and  Nature  of  Science     Concept  1:    History  of  Science  as  a  Human  Endeavor:    Identify  individual,  cultural,  and  technological   contributions  to  scientific knowledge.   Concept  2:    Nature  of  Scientific  Knowledge:    Understand  how  science  is  a  process  for  generating   knowledge.   Strand  3:  Science  in  Personal  and  Social  Perspectives   Concept  1:    Changes  in  Environments:    Describe  the  interactions  between  human  populations,   natural  hazards,  and  the environment.   Concept  2:    Science  in  Technology  and  Society:    Develop  viable  solutions  to  a  need  or  problem.   Strand  4:  Life  Science     Concept  4:    Diversity,  Adaptation  and  Behavior:  Identify  structural  and  behavioral  adaptations.  

The lesson asks students to develop maps based upon climate variables. These maps are created as "overlays" on tracing paper so that they students can stack the "Layers" to examine relationships between the variables.

Science Fair for Grand Challenges

Author: 
Christina Foster
Grade Level: 
5-8

This lesson plan is meant to provide teachers with a guide in developing a science fair surrounding the theme of the Grand Challenges. Outcomes include increasing interest in engineering among middle school students, introducing students to the scientific and engineering methods, to challenge students to develop their own science and engineering questions.

How the Brain sees the Body

Author: 
Derek Overstreet
Grade Level: 
7-9
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Arizona 8th Grade Science Standards: • S1C1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses (PO 1, 3) • S1C2: Scientific Testing (PO 1,3,4,5) • S1C3: Analysis and Conclusions (PO 1,2,3,5,8) • S1C4: Communication (PO 3,5) • S2C2: Nature of Scientific Knowledge (PO 1,2,4) • S3C2: Science and Technology in Society (PO 2) • S4C4: Diversity, Adaptation, and Behavior (PO 1)

Students will discover and learn how various parts of the body have greater representation in the body and brain than others. Students will be introduced to the nervous system's structure through measurement of its sensory capability which varies in different sections of the body (i.e. how does the brain see the body). Additionally students will discuss and consider the potential societal impacts that reverse engineering the brain could have.

Growing Pains of the Phoenix Metro Area

Author: 
Elizabeth Ridder
Grade Level: 
6-8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses: Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses based on observations. Locate appropriate resources. PO1. Formulate questions based on observations that lead to the development of a hypothesis. PO2. Use appropriate research information, not limited to a single source, to use in the development of a testable hypothesis. PO3. Generate a hypothesis that can be tested. Concept 2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling): Design and conduct controlled investigations. PO1. Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g. use and care of technology, materials, organisms) in all science inquiry. PO2. Design a controlled investigation to support or reject a hypothesis. PO3. Conduct a controlled experiment to support or reject a hypothesis. PO4. Perform measurements using appropriate scientific tools (e.g. balances, microscopes, probes, micrometers). PO5. Keep a record of observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using tools such as written and/or computer logs. Concept 3: Analysis and Conclusions: Analyze and interpret data to explain correlations and results; formulate new questions. PO1. Analyze data obtained in a scientific investigation to identify trends. PO2. Form a logical argument about a correlation between variables or sequence of events (e.g. construct a cause-and-effect chain that explains a sequence of events). PO3. Interpret data to show a variety of possible relationships between two variables including: Positive relationship Negative relationship No relationship PO4. Formulate a future investigation based on the data collected. PO5. Explain how evidence supports the validity and reliability of a conclusion. PO6. Identify the potential investigational error that may occur (e.g. flawed investigational design, inaccurate measurement, computational errors, unethical reporting). PO7. Critique scientific reports from periodicals, television, or other media. PO8. Formulate new questions based on the results of a previous investigation. Concept 4: Communication: Communicate results of investigations. PO1. Communicate the results of an investigation. PO3. Present analyses and conclusions in clear, concise formats. PO4. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations or operating equipment (without use of personal pronouns). PO5. Communicate the results and conclusion of the investigation. Strand 2: History and Nature of Science Concept 1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor: Identify individual, cultural, and technological contributions to scientific knowledge. PO1. Indentify how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to scientific innovations. PO3. Evaluate the impact of a major scientific development occurring within the past decade. Concept 2: Nature of Scientific Knowledge: Understand how science is a process for generating knowledge. PO1. Apply the following scientific processes to other problem solving or decision making situations: Observing Predicting Questioning Organizing data Communicating Inferring Comparing Generating hypotheses
overview: 
This lesson builds upon previous activities that asked the students (in groups of 2-4) to determine the types of changes that have occurred in the surrounding city utilizing multiple sources (e.g. aerial photography, Google earth, personal accounts). From these sources students can observe patterns that may relate to multiple academic areas (e.g. land forms, overall landscapes, economic, social). They were then asked to develop questions about the observed changes and several hypotheses to address their questions. As homework, the students designed simple experiments that would test one of their hypotheses and students volunteered the next day to present their experimental designs. At the 8th grade level, this lesson will also require students to recall concepts from previous lessons on weather (6th grade), power generation and transmission (6th grade), the water cycle (6th grade), changes in environments (7th grade), weathering (7th grade), properties of matter (8th grade), and motion and forces (8th grade). This lesson also requires that the instructor introduce the engineering design process and to explain/discuss infrastructure (as a vocabulary word) and problems/success stories relating to America’s infrastructure.

Purpose:
• To engage students in the engineering design process through the creation of a new neighborhood in their area
• To determine the current infrastructure needs of their city and to generate ideas to expand the design life of the need
• To examine the impacts of new development on current infrastructure, landscapes, and perceived quality of life

Membrane Transport Lesson with Candy Models

Author: 
David Welch
Grade Level: 
9-12
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1 - The inquiry process. This includes forming observations, questions, and hypotheses, testing and analyzing, as well as communicating results. Strand 4, Concept 1, PO3 - The importance of water to cells. Strand 4, Concept 1, PO4 - Analyze mechanisms of transport Strand 4, Concept 3, PO2 - Analyzing how organisms are influenced by their environ- ment by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. Strand 4, Concept 5, PO2 - Describe role of organic and inorganic chemicals Strand 5, Concept 1 - The structure and properties of matter.
overview: 
Presented is a lesson plan for creatively presenting the concepts of passive and active trans- port across cell membranes. Two days of activities are presented. The first day is centered around students working by themselves and eventually in pairs to make small models of membranes out of candy. After students make the models they are presented with a variety of situations to model by adding in other types of candy to act as various biological factors. This setup allows for visualizations of membrane structure and function, concentration gra- dients, and mechanics of transport. The second day focuses on an experiment in osmosis across membranes. Students create their own experiment based off a given setup to test a single factor they believe could effect osmosis. Students then carry out the experiment as a class and analyze results.

This lesson will give the students chances to visualize transport phenomena that would not be visible at the macro scale. Additionally this activity will allow students to work with their own materials and with a team to simulate various cellular transport phenomena. Students will also gain valuable experience with experimental procedure and good scientific methods.

keywords: 
Diffusion, Passive Transport, Active Transport, Osmosis, Membranes, Candy

Flash Freezing Ice Cream Spheres for a Lesson on Surface Tension

Author: 
David Welch
Grade Level: 
9-12
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
The Arizona High School Science Standards which are met through this lesson are: Strand 1 - The inquiry process. This includes forming observations, questions, and hypotheses, testing and analyzing, as well as communicating results. Strand 2, Concept 1 - The history of science as a human endeavor. Strand 4, Concept 1, PO3 - The importance of water to cells. Strand 4, Concept 3, PO2 - Analyzing how organisms are influenced by their environment by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. Strand 5, Concept 1 - The structure and properties of matter.
overview: 
We present a lesson on the fundamentals of surface tension to be presented to high school biology and earth science students at Superior High School. The students will complete the inquiry based lesson over three days by perform- ing experiments, actively engaging in lectures, and observing demonstrations. We hope every student will gain a better understanding of the scientific prin- cipals of surface tension while recognizing the importance of surface tension in scientific advancements from the past and in the future.

BioMEMS (biological microelectromechanical systems) and Lab-on-a-chip devices are becoming prominent systems for medical diagnostics as well as excellent platforms for biological testing. It is important to understand the effects surface tension has on these devices as they become smaller and surface tension forces dominate. Work towards the Grand Challenge of Engineering the Tools of Scientific Discovery using BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-chip devices requires an understanding of surface tension.

keywords: 
Surface tension, biology, earth science, ice cream, engineering history, liquid nitrogen.

Saving Lives with Solubility

Author: 
Derek Overstreet
Grade Level: 
7-8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Arizona 8th Grade Science Standards: • S1C1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses (PO 1, 3) • S1C2: Scientific Testing (PO 1,3,4,5) • S1C3: Analysis and Conclusions (PO 1,3,5) • S2C2: Nature of Scientific Knowledge (PO 1,2,3,4) • S3C2: Science and Technology in Society (PO 1,2,3) • S5C1: Properties and Changes of Properties in Matter (PO 2,4,5,6,7)
overview: 
This lesson is intended to integrate basic physical science and chemistry principles with the National Academy of Engineering's Grand Challenges; specifically, engineering better medicines.

Students will learn and apply fundamental physical science principles to design a carrier for a hydrophobic drug. Additionally, students will be introduced to the applications of controlling solubility in everyday items including medicine, food, and cosmetics. Concepts illustrated to students in these activities include solubility, surface tension, phase change, phase separation, the engineering design process, and polar vs. nonpolar compounds.

Water Survivor Class Lesson: Incorporating the Grand Challenges into the Classroom

Author: 
Jacelyn Rice
Grade Level: 
6-10
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Science as Inquiry Science in personal and social perspectives
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process • S1C1- Observations, Questions and Hypotheses • S1C2- Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling) • S1C3- Analysis, Conclusions and Refinements Strand 3: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives • S3C1- Changes in Environments • S3C2- Develop viable solutions to a need or problem Strand 6: Earth and Space Science • S6C1- Geochemical Cycles
overview: 
To introduce the students to the grand challenge of supplying access to clean water.

Supplying access to clean water is one of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) grand challenges for the 21st century. The lack of clean water is estimated to be responsible for more deaths in the world than war. About 1 in every 6 people living today doesn’t have access to clean water and double that value is lacking access to basic sanitation. The shortage of water is a factor of the supply not always being located where it is needed. In many instances, economic and political barriers can prevent access to water even in areas where it is otherwise available.

keywords: 
Water, resources, contaminants, pollutants

The Grand Gel Challenge

Author: 
Hanin Bearat
Grade Level: 
8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
STRAND 1: Inquiry Process PO1: demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures PO3: conduct a controlled investigation to support or reject a hypothesis PO4: perform measurements using appropriate scientific tools PO5: keep a record of observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using written and/or computer logs STRAND 3: Science in Personal & Social Perspective, Concept 2 (Science & Technology in Society) PO1: propose viable methods of responding to an identified need or problem PO2: compare solutions to best address an identified need or problem PO3: design and construct a solution to an identified need or problem using simple classroom materials STRAND 5: Physical Sciences, Concept 1 PO1: identify different kinds of matter based on physical properties PO2: identify different kinds of matter based on chemical properties PO3: identify types of evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred
overview: 
This lesson is designed to cover the basics of physical changes and chemical reactions, which is necessary for 8th grade science. It is assumed that the students will not have had exposure to the concepts prior to the lesson. Definitions of physical change and chemical change will be derived through experimentation with some chemical solutions. Examples of these changes of properties will also be discussed in class. Along with the definitions/examples powerpoint presentation, a worksheet will be given to the students to fill out and take notes. The lesson also will explore gels and their applications in the biomedical field. Students will design a gel for a particular medical application and present their findings on a poster to the class. To conclude, a video will be shown on the research and various uses of gels.

The lesson is designed for students to learn the following:
• Characteristics of physical and chemical changes and how to differentiate between them
• How two substances can be combined to form a new one through a chemical reaction
• How different stimuli can cause a physical change to take place, and that it can be reversed
• How motion of particles differ in a gas, liquid or solid state
• Experiment with polymer gels, with both physical and chemical polymer solutions
• Design-a-gel
• Present observations and designed gels to the class

keywords: 
physical change, chemical change, reaction, pH, temperature, gel/hydrogel, biomedical applications.
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