Grand Challenges

Catalysis and Engineering

Author: 
Kimia Seyedmadani
Grade Level: 
7-8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1 Concept 1, PO 2 and 3 Concept 2, PO 4 and 5 Concept 3, PO 4,5 and 8 Concept 4, PO 3 Concept 1, PO 2 and 3 Strand 2 Concept 1, PO 2 Strand 3 Concept 1, PO 2 Concept 2, PO 1 Strand 5 Concept 1, PO 2, 6 and 7
overview: 
In this quarter students are introduced to chemistry and chemical reactions; our goal is to introduce students to the phenomenon of catalysis via real world application of catalyst in the Engineering Grand Challenge involving solar energy utilizing inquiry based experiments.

The Wave Nature of Light

Author: 
Jeremy Ecton
Grade Level: 
7-8
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Concept A: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations Concept B: Transfer of energy Concept E: Abilities of technical design
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, Hypothesis Concept 2: Scientific Testing Concept 3: Analysis and Conclusions Concept 4: Communication Strand 2: History and Nature of Science Concept 1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor PO4: Analyze the use of technology in science related careers Strand 3: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Concept 1: Changes in Environment Concept 2: Science and Technology in Society
overview: 
In this lesson students will learn about the wave nature of light via the classic double slit experiment. Students will use an optical simulation program to model the double slit experiment.

Neurons and Action Potential

Author: 
Kari Rich
Grade Level: 
9-10
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Science as Inquiry • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry • Understandings about scientific inquiry Life Science • The cell Science and Technology • Abilities of technological design • Understandings about science and technology Science in Personal and Social Perspectives • Personal and community health
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses (Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses based on observations. Evaluate appropriate resources.) PO 1. Evaluate scientific information for relevance to a given problem. PO 2. Develop questions from observations that transition into testable hypotheses. PO 3. Formulate a testable hypothesis. PO 4. Predict the outcome of an investigation based on prior evidence, probability, and/or modeling (not guessing or inferring). Concept 2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling) (Design and conduct controlled investigations.) PO 5. Record observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using tools such as journals, charts, graphs, and computers Concept 3: Analysis, Conclusions, and Refinements (Evaluate experimental design, analyze data to explain results and propose further investigations, design models) PO 1. Interpret data that show a variety of possible relationships between variables, including: • positive relationship • negative relationship • no relationship PO 2. Evaluate whether investigational data support or do not support the proposed hypothesis. Concept 4: Communication (Communicate results of investigations) PO 2. Produce graphs that communicate data. PO 3. Communicate results clearly and logically. PO 4. Support conclusions with logical scientific arguments.
overview: 
In this lesson, students will learn about ion flow and membrane potential during an action potential in a neuron. Channel position, graphing and naming of the different stages of action potentials will also be discussed. Applications of this information are introduced using neural data, sound clips and an online program showing the concept of the refractory period. Following the activity, students will be given a worksheet asking them to describe what they did during the activity and apply what they learned to more abstract questions.

Biomimetic Robot

Author: 
Byron Lahey
Grade Level: 
7-8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses PO 1. Formulate questions based on observations that lead to the development of a hypothesis. Concept 2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling) PO 1. Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g., use and care of technology, materials, organisms) in all science inquiry. PO 2. Design an investigation to test individual variables using scientific processes. PO 3. Conduct a controlled investigation, utilizing multiple trials, to test a hypothesis using scientific processes. Concept 3: Analysis and Conclusions PO 2. Form a logical argument about a correlation between variables or sequence of events (e.g., construct a cause-and-effect chain that explains a sequence of events). PO 3. Analyze results of data collection in order to accept or reject the hypothesis. Concept 4: Communication PO 5. Communicate the results and conclusion of the investigation. Strand 4: Life Science Concept 1: Structure and Function in Living Systems (Understand the relationships between structures and functions of organisms.) Concept 4: Diversity, Adaptation, and Behavior (Identify structural and behavioral adaptations.)
overview: 
Creating robots that are inspired by living organisms serves two purposes: 1. Copying systems that have evolved over millions of years results in better robots. 2. Building systems that mimic what we see in nature helps us better understand those natural systems.

Mortal Kombat - An Epidemic Simulation

Author: 
Kimia Seyedmadani
Grade Level: 
7-8th
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Content Standard A (Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry) Content Standard C (Populations and ecosystems) Content Standard F (Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; risks and benefits; science and technology in society) Content Standard G (Science as a human endeavor; nature of science)
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
7th Grade Strand 1: Concept 1: POs 1,3 Concept 2: PO 5 Concept 3: POs 1-7 Concept 4: POs 1-3,5 Strand 2: Concept 1: PO 3 Concept 2: POs 1-3 Strand 3: Concept 2: POs 1,2 Strand 4: Concept 3: POs 3,4 8th Grade Strand 1: Concept 1: POs 1-3 Concept 2: POs 2,3,5 Concept 3: 1,2,4-6,8 Concept 4: POs 1-3,5 Strand 2: Concept 1: PO 3 Concept 2: POs 3-4 Strand 3: Concept 2: POs 1,2 Strand 4: Concept 4: POs 2-4
overview: 
This lesson focuses on implementing “the yellow dot epidemic” by Franbach, which is designed to replicate a real time distribution of an epidemic thought a class. In this lesson not only the simulated virus “Cyrax” distribution will be model also “Sub-Zero” designed medication effect on the disease is also under the study. One of the concepts that 8th grade science students will study is mutation. In this lesson mutation version of the Cyrax also will be distributed. Direction on distribution of diseases, medicine and mutation trends were determined via epidemiological mathematical models and prediction methods used by Center for Disease Control (Appendix A). This study allowed exploring information on human- to human transmitted diseases such as flu and E-coli. It is important to look at the actual and perceived risk factors and costs between infected and susceptible individual. This background information and simulations will allow student to gain awareness about those outbreaks.

GPS Geo-Caching, Mapping and Physical Modeling

Author: 
Byron Lahey
Grade Level: 
7-8th
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 2: History and Nature of Science Concept 1 (PO 2-4) Strand 3: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Concept 1 (PO 1-2) Strand 4: Life Science Concept 3 Strand 6: Earth and Space Science Concept 1 (PO 3) Concept 2 (PO 3,6)
overview: 
This lesson introduces GPS technology through a series of hands on activities. These activities are scaffolded by group discussions and a presentation. The first activity is a geo-caching exercise that requires a variety of navigation and problem solving skills. Each geo-cache presents a question or fact about GPS technology and its uses. The second activity uses Google Maps to reinforce the lessons learned in the geo-caching activity and to solidify the students understanding of the latitude-longitude coordinate system. The final activity requires students to physically model the relationship of GPS receivers and satellites in an attempt to answer the question of how many satellites a receiver must connect with to fix its 3D position.

Turning Garbage into Energy!

Author: 
Jeremy Ecton
Grade Level: 
7-8th
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Concept A: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations Concept B: Transfer of energy Concept E: Abilities of technical design
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concepts 1-4 Strand 2: History and Nature of Science Concept 1 Strand 3: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Concepts 1-2 Strand 4: Life Science Concept 1
overview: 
In this lesson students will learn how to make and quantify observations, design a methane generating bio-reactor from garbage based on these observations, quantify results using scientific instruments, and draw conclusions on their findings. The “big ideas” this project will cover are microbiology (the idea that all living things are composed of smaller living things; cells), alternative energy, and global warming from green house gases.

Cell Talk

Author: 
Kari Rich
Grade Level: 
9-12
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
Standard A: Science as Inquiry - Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry - Understandings about scientific inquiry Standard C: Life Science - The cell - The behavior of organisms Standard E: Science and Technology - Understandings about science and technology Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - Personal and community
overview: 
In this lesson, students will show their understanding of cellular communication by creating experiments to demonstrate diffusion and osmosis and a representation of endocytosis. The lesson also incorporates discussion and animations of passive and active transport, introduces students to the Engineering Grand Challenge: Reverse Engineer the Brain, and relates basic cellular transport to the function of prosthetic devices as a real life application.

Stayin' Clean: Alcohol-, Drugs- and Tobacco-Free

Author: 
Hanin Bearat
Grade Level: 
8
Standards
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
1. STRAND 1: Inquiry Process: Concept 2 (Scientific Testing)PO1: demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures, PO3: conduct a controlled investigation to support or reject a hypothesis, PO4: perform measurements using appropriate scientific tools, PO5: keep a record of observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using written and/or computer logs Concept 3 (Analysis and Conclusions), PO1: analyze data obtained in a scientific investigation to identify trends, PO2: form a logical argument about a correlation between variables or sequence of events, PO5: explain how evidence supports the viability and reliability of a conclusion, Concept 4 (Communication), PO1: communicate the results of an investigation 2. STRAND 3: Science in Personal & Social Perspective, Concept 2 (Science & Technology in Society), PO1: propose viable methods of responding to an identified need or problem, PO3: design and construct a solution to an identified need or problem using simple classroom materials
overview: 
This lesson is designed to educate youth on the effects of various substances of abuse on their bodies. It specifically covers the effect of alcohol on the liver (as well as other parts of the body), the effect of drugs on the brain and the effect of tobacco on the lungs. The first part of the lesson is intended to be completely inquiry-based, with little information given to the students aside for a few directions and relying on their notes and observations. In this lesson, students rotate through different stations (3 lab stations and 3 reading stations) to do hands-on activities relating to the different organs and the substances which affect them, as well as read articles about each organ, its function and what the substance of abuse does to that organ. Students then match the reading and lab scenarios and explain their reasoning. The second part of the lesson aims at providing facts, statistics, images and videos on each of the categories. The lesson concludes with analysis of various advertisements for alcohol, drugs and tobacco, and the students designing their own “anti” ad to discourage others from using these substances.

The lesson is designed for students to learn the following:
• Experiment with lab activities relating to substance abuse and their effects on various organs
• Read articles on the organs, their functions and the effect of substances on them
• Use inquiry and problem-based learning to analyze and determine the correct matches of the lab activities to the readings
• Gain knowledge on the effects of alcohol, drugs and tobacco on their bodies
• Use propaganda techniques to analyze tobacco, alcohol and drug industry advertisements and their underlying messages

A Look into the Water Treatment Process

Author: 
Jacelyn Rice
Grade Level: 
9-12
Standards
National Science Education Standards: 
1. Science as Inquiry 2. Science in personal and social perspectives
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
S1C1- Observations, Questions and Hypotheses S1C2- Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling) S1C3- Analysis, Conclusions and Refinements S3C1- Changes in Environments S3C2- Develop viable solutions to a need or problem
overview: 
To introduce students to the grand challenge of supplying access to clean water and the measures taken here in the United States to provide clean water.

Supplying access to clean water is a grand challenge that is vital for the health and longevity of our world. Around the world there are more people who have died from lack in supply of clean water and sanitation, than from deaths associated with all the World Wars combined. It is important to note the processes that our society undergoes in order to supply water to our taps. Many other countries do not have access to clean water, especially not with the convenience of being delivered to tap.

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