Growing Pains of the Phoenix Metro Area

Elizabeth Ridder
Grade Level: 
Arizona State Science Education Standards: 
Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses: Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses based on observations. Locate appropriate resources. PO1. Formulate questions based on observations that lead to the development of a hypothesis. PO2. Use appropriate research information, not limited to a single source, to use in the development of a testable hypothesis. PO3. Generate a hypothesis that can be tested. Concept 2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling): Design and conduct controlled investigations. PO1. Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g. use and care of technology, materials, organisms) in all science inquiry. PO2. Design a controlled investigation to support or reject a hypothesis. PO3. Conduct a controlled experiment to support or reject a hypothesis. PO4. Perform measurements using appropriate scientific tools (e.g. balances, microscopes, probes, micrometers). PO5. Keep a record of observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using tools such as written and/or computer logs. Concept 3: Analysis and Conclusions: Analyze and interpret data to explain correlations and results; formulate new questions. PO1. Analyze data obtained in a scientific investigation to identify trends. PO2. Form a logical argument about a correlation between variables or sequence of events (e.g. construct a cause-and-effect chain that explains a sequence of events). PO3. Interpret data to show a variety of possible relationships between two variables including: Positive relationship Negative relationship No relationship PO4. Formulate a future investigation based on the data collected. PO5. Explain how evidence supports the validity and reliability of a conclusion. PO6. Identify the potential investigational error that may occur (e.g. flawed investigational design, inaccurate measurement, computational errors, unethical reporting). PO7. Critique scientific reports from periodicals, television, or other media. PO8. Formulate new questions based on the results of a previous investigation. Concept 4: Communication: Communicate results of investigations. PO1. Communicate the results of an investigation. PO3. Present analyses and conclusions in clear, concise formats. PO4. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations or operating equipment (without use of personal pronouns). PO5. Communicate the results and conclusion of the investigation. Strand 2: History and Nature of Science Concept 1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor: Identify individual, cultural, and technological contributions to scientific knowledge. PO1. Indentify how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to scientific innovations. PO3. Evaluate the impact of a major scientific development occurring within the past decade. Concept 2: Nature of Scientific Knowledge: Understand how science is a process for generating knowledge. PO1. Apply the following scientific processes to other problem solving or decision making situations: Observing Predicting Questioning Organizing data Communicating Inferring Comparing Generating hypotheses
This lesson builds upon previous activities that asked the students (in groups of 2-4) to determine the types of changes that have occurred in the surrounding city utilizing multiple sources (e.g. aerial photography, Google earth, personal accounts). From these sources students can observe patterns that may relate to multiple academic areas (e.g. land forms, overall landscapes, economic, social). They were then asked to develop questions about the observed changes and several hypotheses to address their questions. As homework, the students designed simple experiments that would test one of their hypotheses and students volunteered the next day to present their experimental designs. At the 8th grade level, this lesson will also require students to recall concepts from previous lessons on weather (6th grade), power generation and transmission (6th grade), the water cycle (6th grade), changes in environments (7th grade), weathering (7th grade), properties of matter (8th grade), and motion and forces (8th grade). This lesson also requires that the instructor introduce the engineering design process and to explain/discuss infrastructure (as a vocabulary word) and problems/success stories relating to America’s infrastructure.

• To engage students in the engineering design process through the creation of a new neighborhood in their area
• To determine the current infrastructure needs of their city and to generate ideas to expand the design life of the need
• To examine the impacts of new development on current infrastructure, landscapes, and perceived quality of life

Grand Challenge_PHX Growing Pains Nov 2010.ppt2.17 MB
Design Specifications Worksheet-1.doc36 KB
Student Evaluation of Groups.doc31 KB
Student Evaluation of Self_Group.doc34 KB
Grand Challenge Lesson Plan Nov2010 v2-1.doc68 KB